Nepal – the country of Mt. Everest and Buddha

Nepal – the country of Mt. Everest and Buddha

Mahakali Treaty & Pancheshwar multipurpose project

Posted by Ram Kumar Shrestha on June 17, 2011

The Treaty on integrated Development of Mahakali River had been signed between the Government of India and Government of Nepal in February 1996, which came into force in June 1997 (Mahakali Treaty) . Pancheshwar Multipurpose Project on river Mahakali  known as Sarda in India is the centrepiece of the Treaty. India- Nepal Joint Group of Experts (JGE) has been overseeing the physical and financial progress with respect to finalization of Joint Detailed Project Report of Pancheshwar Multipurpose Project. All the related field investigations have been completed and Detailed Project Report is to be finalized after resolving the pending issues, which are under discussion with Nepal. The project will have will have power, irrigation and incidental flood control benefits etc..

Sapta Kosi High Dam multipurpose project and Sunkosi Storage cum

diversion scheme


As per the understanding reached between Government of India (GOI) and His Majesty’s Government of Nepal (HMGN), it has been agreed to conduct joint investigations and other studies for the preparation of Detailed Project Report (DPR) of Sapta Kosi High Dam Multipurpose Project and Sun Kosi Storage-cum-Diversion Scheme to meet the following objectives in terms of fulfilling the requirement of both the countries from its development :-

(i)       Hydro Power Generation;

(ii)      Irrigation Development;

(iii)     Flood Control/ management; and

(iv)     Navigation.


A Joint Team of Experts (JTE) consisting of experts from the both the countries was constituted in 1991 to finalize the modalities of investigation and method of assessment of benefits through joint studies / investigations.   An Inception Report indicating the scope of work and studies required to be carried out for the finalisation of DPR of both the projects was prepared by the JTE which was approved by the Governments of both countries and the same is the guiding document for JPO-SKSKI, Biratnagar, Nepal.  Joint Team of Experts so far had six meetings.   Its 1st meeting was held in February, 1992 and its 6th meeting  was held on 12 – 13 June 2005.

The 2nd meeting of Joint Committee on Water Resources (JCWR) of both countries was held in October, 2004 and JCWR has given a directive to JPO-SKSKI to examine the likely constraints in the implementation of Kamala & Bagmati Multi Purpose Projects and prepare the Feasibility Report of Kamala Multi Purpose Project and Pre-feasibility Report of Bagmati Multi Purpose Project.

The Joint Project Office (JPO) has been established at Biratnagar, Nepal on 17th August, 2004.  JPO main office is located at Biratnagar, Nepal.  It has two division offices located at Dharan and Janakpur.  Dharan and Janakpur are about 40 Kms and 250 Kms., respectively from Biratnagar. Each Division has two Sub-divisions. Both the Sub-divisions of Dharan Division are located at Chatra which is about 20 kms from Dharan.  The Sub-Division offices at Janakpur Division are located at Lahan and Katari.  Lahan and Katari are at a distance of 50 kms and 60 kms respectively from Janakpur Division office. Besides, there is a Liaison Office at Kathmandu.

269 meter high concrete/Rock fill dam on river Sapta Kosi with a dam toe underground power house with an installed capacity of 3000 MW at 50% load factor. A barrage on river Sapta Kosi about 8 km downstream of Sapta Kosi High Dam to re-regulate the water being released from the Sapta Kosi dam. Two canals, Eastern Chhatra Canal and Western Chhatra Canal, off-taking from the either bank from barrage site to provide water for irrigation both in Nepal and India. The Navigation through Kosi up to Kursela and also in the reservoir of Sapta Kosi dam.

A Power Canal off-taking from Eastern Chatra Canal for conveying the water required for irrigation at existing Kosi barrage at Hanuman Nagar and also the water which may be required downstream of Hanuman Nagar barrage for the purpose of navigation.  To utilize the head available between Chatra and Hanuman Nagar barrages for power generation, three canal Power Houses, each of 100 MW installed capacity are also proposed on power canal.

Necessary cushion in storage capacity of Sapta Kosi High Dam would be provided to moderate the flood downstream of dam.

Chatra Canal System would provide irrigation to large area in Nepal and India (especially in Bihar).

Burhi Gandaki Hydro Electric Project:

On the request of HMG Nepal agreement in principal has been reached between Indian and Nepal to take up field investigations and preparation of Detailed Project Report of 600 MW Burhi Gandaki Hydro Electric Project, the MOU for which is to be signed between the two sides.  The draft MOU has been finalized by Ministry of Water Resources and has been forwarded to Ministry of External Affairs who have agreed to fund the scheme.

Standing Committee On Inundation Problems:

For dealing with the problems of inadvertent inundation caused by the construction of various works on   rivers straddling the Indo – Nepal border, a Standing Committee on Inundation Problems (SCIP) between India and Nepal has also been functioning since 1986 with a view to identifying the problem areas and suggesting possible solutions on a continuing basis.  Various issues relating to inundation problems near India – Nepal border have been discussed & decisions taken therein from time to time for needful action in the matter.

Sub Committee on Embankment Construction (SCEC):

In order to solve the problem of inundation due to Lalbakeya, Kamla, Bagmati and Khando rivers, it was decided to extend embankments along these rivers in Indian Territory upto Nepal and tie to high ground in Nepal. This Project has been taken up in Nepal with financial assistance from India. The work on the embankments on Lalbakeya has been completed and the same is in progress along river Bagmati.

The India — Nepal Joint Sub Committee on Embankment Construction is looking into planning. design and construction of embankments. Funds to HMG/Nepal are provided by Ministry of External Affairs on the recommendations of SCEC. The  6th meeting was held from 13th June to 17th June 2004.  The seventh meeting of SCEC was held during 5 – 7th May 2005 wherein it was decided among other things to release 3rd installment among to Rs. NRs. 4.40 crore to HMG Nepal.  Ministry of External Affairs in June 2005 has released NRs. 4.40 crore to Department of Water Induced Disaster Prevention, HMGN, towards release of third installment for construction of embankment along Bagmati river in Nepal.

Flood Forecasting And Warning System On Rivers Common To India &


A plan scheme namely, “Flood Forecasting and Warning System on rivers common to India and Nepal” which has 42 meteorological / hydrometric sites in Nepalese territory is in operation since 1989.  A Joint India- Nepal Committee on Flood Forecasting (CFF) was setup in April, 2001 to review the existing flood forecasting system and prepare a Flood Forecasting Master Plan (FFMP).  The Master Plan was also to include the upgrading of data transmission system and exchange of hydrological and meteorological data for an integrated flood management.  The Committee has so far held three meetings in which among other issues the draft FFMP has also been finalized wherein the number of stations are proposed to be increased from 42 to 47. Further for qualitative improvement of flood forecasting in Indian side, the Nepalese side has also agreed to transmit hydrological data in respect of the 5 key stations located on rivers Ganga, Kosi, Rapti, Bagmati and Mahananda twice a day.

Joint Committee on Water Resources

In order to have interaction at higher level pertaining to the cooperation in the field of Water Resources, including implementation of various agreements and understandings, a Nepal – India Joint Committee on Water Resources (JSCWR) headed by Water Resources Secretaries of both the countries is functioning with the mandate to act as an Umbrella Committee of all committees and groups.



4 Responses to “Mahakali Treaty & Pancheshwar multipurpose project”

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  3. raghubir singh ghatal said

    hi myself raghubir singh ghatal. I want to know recent situation about the pancheshwar multipurpose project.I want to Know detailed info about this. so if this type of info are available there please reply me.

  4. Miah M Adel said

    Please permit me to reproduce the map of the Sapta Kosi High Dam Multipurpose Project and the Sunkosi Storage cum Diversion Scheme in my book project on the Ganges basin. You will be duly credited beside the picture.

    Your quick response is solicited.

    Thanks in advance.

    Best regards,

    Dr. Miah Adel
    Professor of Physics
    University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff
    Pine Bluff, AR 71601

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